No sooner had Vodafone announced it would buy most of its online media itself did it stumble on arguably the plan’s most problematic part — programmatic.

No trend summed up the erosion of trust in digital advertising more over the last 12 months more than advertisers wanting to buy more of their own ads: It was the year advertisers thought they could create their own cheaper, faster, better versions of agencies they suspected had spent their money irresponsibly. But being annoyed at agencies is one thing, replacing them is another.

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